Posted by: Kevin G. Parker, D.C.
Exercise and leukocyte interchange among central circulation, lung, spleen, and muscle
-Department of Physiology & Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, USA
-Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Irvine, USA
…side note: Leukocyte-white blood cell- wikipedia
In summary, these results provide evidence to support the idea that neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes identified in the circulation can exchange bidirectionally with the lung, spleen, and muscle.
Exercise tends to favor the movement of lymphocytes, monocytes, and, possibly, neutrophils from these peripheral compartments into the circulation, consistent with the leukocytosis that accompanies even brief exercise.
In general, the lung and spleen appear to exchange leukocytes more rapidly with the central circulation than does the muscle.
These studies suggest that exercise could hasten the reappearance in the central circulation of leukocytes conditioned by the local environment of the lung,spleen, and muscle providing a potential mechanism through which tissues like muscle could influence immune function systemically.
This speculation is consistent with a growing body of data from air pollution to surgery, that local triggers can influence systemic immune cell function (den Hartigh et al., 2010; Landis,2009; Menzies et al., 2006; Thomas et al., 2002).
Circulating leukocytes increase rapidly with exercise then quickly decrease when the exercise ends.
We tested whether exercise acutely led to bidirectional interchange of leukocytes between the circulation and the lung, spleen, and active skeletal muscle.
To accomplish this it was necessary to label a large number of immune cells (granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes) in a way that resulted in minimal perturbation of cell function.
Rats were injected intravenously with a single bolus of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinamidyl ester (CFSE) dye which is rapidly and irreversibly taken up by circulating cells.
The time course of the disappearance of labeled cells and their reappearance in the circulation following exercise was determined via flow cytometry.
The majority of circulating leukocytes were labeled at 4h. post-injection and this proportion slowly declined out to 120 h.
At both 24 and 120 h, running resulted in an increase in the proportion of labeled leukocytes in the circulation.
Analysis of the skeletal muscle, spleen and lung indicated that labeled leukocytes had accumulated in those tissues and were mobilized to the circulation in response to exercise.
This indicates that there is an ongoing exchange of leukocytes between the circulation and tissues and that exercise can stimulate their redistribution.
Exchange was slower with muscle than with spleen and lung, but in all cases, influenced by exercise.
Exercise bouts redistribute leukocytes between the circulation and the lung, spleen and muscle.
The modulatory effects of exercise on the immune system may be regulated in part by the systemic redistribution of immune cells.
1. Exercise and the brain: something to chew on-Henriette van Praag
Trends in Neurosciences Vol.32 No.5-Neuroplasticity and Behavior Unit, Laboratory of Neurosciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA