Archive for the ‘Insulin-Nutrition-and Your Health’ Category

Insulin-Nutrition-and Your Health

January 25, 2012

Written by Charles Poliquin-12/21/2011

Posted by:  Kevin G. Parker, D.C.
Do you know what insulin resistance is?

How about insulin sensitivity?

Do you know how these words relate to the development of diabetes?

Both are terms that are used regularly in the media and by public health professionals, but do you find yourself confused about what insulin health actually is?

Optimal insulin health is a fine balance between the type of food you eat, when you eat it, and how much activity you get.

Insulin plays a primary role in managing body composition by mediating fat burning and energy levels, and it is thereby involved in the development of lean mass.

Although insulin health is a complicated process, managing it is probably one of the most important things you can do to feel better and achieve a lean physique.

In this article, I will review the basics of insulin health, how insulin health influences body composition and energy production, and provide simple strategies for improving it.

Take note that there are many ways of supporting insulin health and preventing diabetes, but this is a basic guide that will provide simple tips you can easily incorporate into your life today.

What is Insulin?

Insulin is a hormone that is secreted by the pancreas—an organ that sits behind the stomach—after you eat carbohydrates.

When you eat carbs and they are absorbed into the bloodstream, they elevate your blood sugar (also called blood glucose), which the pancreas detects.

The pancreas secretes insulin in order to help the body process the blood glucose.

In a healthy body, the insulin binds with receptors on your cells. When a cell has insulin attached to it via the receptor, the cell activates other receptors (that act like messengers) to absorb the glucose from the blood stream into the cell to be used for energy.

What is Insulin Resistance?

Be aware that insulin resistance is a continuum; it’s not that you are either insulin resistance or insulin sensitive. These are not absolute terms, and the good news is that you can shift your how your cells respond on the continuum to be more sensitive.

Insulin resistance occurs when your cells are less affected by insulin and the receptors don’t properly bind with the insulin. Insulin resistance is as if you have locks on the door to your cells.

In a healthy body, the insulin is similar to a “key” that opens the door of the cell so that the glucose (from carbs you have eaten) can move from your blood into your cells where it is either burned or stored.

If your body is very insulin sensitive and you eat foods that manage insulin secretion, your body will work like a well-oiled machine and the whole process will be very efficient.

But, if your cells become resistant to insulin, the pancreas will secrete more and more insulin because of the continued presence of glucose in the blood. The pancreas will think more “keys” are needed to open the door to the cells.

This will lead to high levels of insulin and glucose circulating, but none of either are going where they are supposed to in the body.

Rather, the insulin will trigger the body to release the stress hormone cortisol, and the high blood glucose will be turned into fat. You will have low energy levels because your cells are not getting the fuel they need and many other processes in the body will be negatively affected.

What Are the Effects of Insulin Resistance?

There are numerous negative health effects of insulin resistance. In addition to fat gain and higher cortisol, your triglyceride levels will increase, which leads to atherosclerosis and heart disease, and your body will produce free radicals, leading to chronic inflammation and disease.

Insulin resistance will ultimately turn into type 2 diabetes and will affect most if not all aspects of health. The primary areas are body composition including belly fat gain, cardiovascular health, and hormone health such as cortisol.

Just as insulin resistance often leads to higher cortisol levels, the production of other hormones will be influenced, including testosterone for men.

It is well established that men with poorer insulin sensitivity or diabetes have low testosterone and this connection is associated with a greater percentage of body fat, less lean mass, poor general health, and lack of sexual health.

What Is The Difference Between Insulin Resistance And Diabetes?

Remember that insulin resistance occurs on a continuum that is measured most simply with a blood glucose test.

The measurement of blood glucose in your blood after an overnight fast will provide an idea of how insulin resistant or sensitive your cells are.

Classifications vary based on the organization providing the guidelines, but a general rule is that normal blood glucose levels run between 70 to 100 mg/dL.

Naturally, for optimal health and greater insulin sensitivity, you want to have your blood glucose level as low on the continuum as possible A level between 100 to 140 mg/dL is considered pre-diabetic, and would indicate that the cells are very insulin resistant. A value over 140 mg/dL indicates diabetes.

You can buy a blood glucose test at most pharmacies and perform it at home. Perform the test twice for best results. If you want more information on your insulin health, talk to your doctor about performing an oral glucose test because this will tell you how your body responds when you ingest glucose.

How Do the Fats I Eat Affect Insulin Health?

Even though carbohydrates are the macronutrient that raise blood glucose and trigger insulin secretion from the pancreas, the fat you eat plays a primary role in the whole process.

All the cells in the body are made up of two layers of lipids or fats, which will be composed of good fats or bad fats depending on the type you eat.

If the cell lipid layers are made up of healthy fats, it will make them more sensitive to insulin and allow the receptors to bind more easily.

This allows the glucose to enter the cell and get burned as fuel.

But, if you eat large amounts of trans-fats or have a severe imbalance between the omega-6 and -3 fats in your diet, your cell lipid layers will be made up of those fats.

Lipid layers made of unhealthy fats lead to unhealthy cells and greater insulin resistance.

Eat the right fats and you will increase insulin sensitivity and cell activity, which can trigger greater fat burning. The “right fats” mean a large quantity of omega-3 fats that are balanced with omega-6 fats.

Avoid trans-fats at all costs. Omega-3 fatty acids are those that commonly come from fish oil (often referred to as DHA, EPA and ALA), but they also can be gotten from grass-fed beef and wild meats.

This is why I suggest the two things you can do for better insulin health and body composition are take a high dose of omega-3s and eat meats and fish that have a high concentration of these fats.

I recommend a fish oil dose in the range of 1 to 1.5 grams of omega-3s per percent of body fat, meaning if you have 20 percent body fat you would take 20 grams.

Many people like to start taking a more conservative dose, which is fine, but think of it as if you are replacing your daily fat intake goal with fish oil.

For example, if it is 60 grams, replacing 20 of those grams with an omega-3 supplement is an easy thing to do.

How Do I Balance My Omega-3 And Omega-6 Fats?

Excellent question!

Simply, omega-6 fats are found in abundance in vegetable oils (corn, sesame safflower, peanut, etc.) that are used in cooking and producing processed foods.

They are found in abundance in the typical Western diet and have resulted in a skewed ratio between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats.

Human beings evolved on a diet with an equal ratio between these two types of fats because of the high prevalence of wild meat in the diet and complete lack of processed foods.

In the typical diet today, that ratio has been skewed to anywhere between 15:1 to as bad as 50:1 of omega-6 fats to omega-3s.The goal is to shift that ratio back to equal for optimal health. Omega-6s are not “bad fats”; they are just not as “good” for promoting insulin health as omega-3s.

There’s even evidence to support a more equal ratio for better health.

A number of studies have documented this skewed ratio and have found that shifting the intake of omega-6 to more omega-3 fats will result in lower disease rates, particularly cardiovascular disease, cancer, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, and diabetes.

In relation to insulin health, fats vary in terms of their permeability and omega-3s are the most liquid of the fats. When omega-3s make up the cell lipid layers, it is easier for the insulin to bind to them because of their liquidity.

Omega-6s are next most permeable, followed by other forms of fats, of which trans-fats are the worst—they are sludgy, impermeable fats that do not want to support insulin binding.

What Are Other Simple Tips For Better Insulin Sensitivity?

There are many ways to improve insulin sensitivity, even for people who have blood glucose levels in the normal range. The three main areas to focus on are diet, physical activity, and supplementation.

Tip 1: Eat A High-Protein, Low-Carb Diet

The simplest thing you can do for better insulin sensitivity is to eat a high-protein, low-carb diet that favors a low-glycemic response.

A number of recent studies have shown high-protein diets to be effective for weight loss because of how they support insulin health and better energy levels.

For example, one study published in the journal Obesity compared the use of a long-term high-protein, low-carb diet with a low-fat, calorie-restricted diet on food cravings and weight management.

Participants in the high-protein, low-carb diet group were instructed to eat foods rich in protein and fat until they were satisfied, while limiting carbs to 20 g/day in the form of low-glycemic index vegetables (glycemic refers to the amount of insulin that is secreted in response to blood glucose and is based on how rapidly the carbs are digested).

This method resulted in better weigh management, better insulin health, and fewer cravings for high-carb foods, particularly those high in sugar that can impair insulin sensitivity than the low-calorie, low-fat diet.

Tip 2: Manage The Glycemic Response

You’ll have the best insulin health by eating only low-glycemic index carbs such as dark green vegetables and dark colored berries.

This will provide carbs with high fiber content, producing a very moderate insulin response.

The best source of fibrous low-glycemic foods are strawberries, blueberries, bilberries, raspberries, cherries, kale, broccoli, lettuce, cabbage, cauliflower, mushrooms, green beans, asparagus, cucumber, spinach, peppers, zucchini. Bananas, pineapples, and oranges have a much higher glycemic index.

Naturally, you may not be ready to eliminate all other carbs from the diet.

The solution is to slow digestion and lower the glycemic response by adding foods that support insulin health to high-glycemic foods, such as bread or oatmeal.

If you eat a piece of white or even whole wheat bread, it will be digested very fast and all the carbs will be quickly turned into glucose, raising the overall glucose level rapidly and triggering more insulin to keep up with the high amount of glucose in the blood.

In comparison, low-glycemic bread such as multi-grain bread with added fenugreek (an herb that naturally lowers glycemic index) will be digested more slowly.

The carbs will more gradually be turned into glucose, triggering a smaller, more measured insulin response.

Research indicates some of the most effective foods for lowering glycemic response are nuts, fenugreek, cinnamon, strawberries, bilberries, and raspberries. Always try to eat one of these foods or herbs when you eat high-glycemic carbs.

You can also mediate the insulin response by taking a supplement and I provide a list of these below in Tip #7.

Tip 3: Limit Fructose In Your Diet

Fructose, which is found in many fruits and is found in abundant amounts in processed foods in the form of high-fructose corn syrup, doesn’t trigger insulin in the way glucose does, but it does mess with insulin health.

In fact, fructose does not stimulate insulin secretion from the pancreas.

Rather it is metabolized by the liver, and if you only eat a very small amount, the liver does this very effectively.
But, if the liver is not able to keep up with fructose metabolism, it will be turned into fat and is known to lower glucose uptake (the ability of glucose to get into the cells to be burned) and affect insulin sensitivity.

It’s still unclear why fructose has this effect, but a number of studies have shown that high fructose intake leads to visceral belly fat gain and lowers insulin sensitivity.

I generally suggest limiting your intake to 5 to 10 grams of fructose a day, with very active individuals maxing out at 20 grams. Lower fructose fruits and vegetables include most berries, nectarines, grapefruit, avocado, and tomatoes. Bananas, apples, and pears are on the high end of the scale.

Tip 4: Perform A Strength Training Program

There’s no lack of evidence that exercise improves insulin health. In order to exercise or perform even moderate physical activity such as taking a walk or cleaning your house, your body requires energy and as we know, insulin is directly involved in the body’s ability to turn the food you eat into energy.

Both strength training and energy system training in the form of sprint intervals will improve insulin sensitivity.

A higher intensity is better, but even low intensity exercise is beneficial. For best results, heavy weights with a high volume will lead to greater energy use and optimal insulin health.

Tip 5: Do Something Physical Daily and Be More Active

Improve insulin health by being more physically active.

We aren’t meant to be a sedentary population, and when we are inactive it affects the body’s sensitivity to insulin.

If you sit most of the day at a desk job, even if you train hard and heavy in regular workouts, you are still susceptible to developing insulin resistance.

A study in the journal Medicine and Science in Sports and Exerciseshowed that as little as three days of physical inactivity can result in “robust changes” in post-meal glucose uptake (an indicator of overall insulin health).

In young, recreationally active individuals, glucose uptake decreased two-fold with three days of inactivity.

A second study in the Journal of Applied Physiology looked at how inactivity experienced by individuals with desk jobs affects insulin health.

Young healthy individuals who regularly took more than 10,000 steps a day were made to transition to an inactive lifestyle of about 1,500 steps a day for a 14-day period. The inactivity led to much reduced insulin sensitivity and participants gained visceral belly fat.

Other studies support this and researchers stress that diabetes will not only be in store for immobilized individuals (due to bed rest or injury), but also for those who take less than 10,000 steps a day, even with the addition of a regular exercise program.

Make it a goal to take 10,000 steps a day and be sure to perform regular strength training and energy system training. Move as much as possible on days when you are off from scheduled exercise.

Doing house work and yard work will support insulin health, as will going up and down stairs and taking brisk walks around the block during the day.

Tip 6: Make Sure Your Basic Nutrients Are Adequate

Make sure you are getting adequate amounts of the basic nutrients.

Aside from omega-3 fish oil, the most important nutrients that support insulin sensitivity are magnesium, zinc, and vitamin D.

People are chronically deficient in these minerals. For best results, get your levels tested.For zinc, look for a mix of zinc ororate and aspartate.

Take a magnesium supplement that contains a blend of elemental magnesium—look magnesium ororate, fumarate, glycinate, and taurate because they are most easily absorbed by the body.

For vitamin D, a general suggestion is to take 5,000 IUs a day or a dose of 35,000 to 50,000 IUs twice a week.

Tip 7: Fine Tune Insulin Health With Additional Supplements

There are numerous herbs, minerals, and antioxidants that will improve insulin health by either helping the insulin to bind to the cell, mediate glucose uptake, support energy use, or lower inflammation.

These include resveratrol (found in wine, improves glucose uptake), probiotics (improve glucose uptake and energy use), vitamin K (improves insulin sensitivity), carnitine (supports fat burning), coffee (lowers inflammation and supports glucose uptake), and green tea (lowers inflammation).

A more obscure blend of herbal extracts called heartwood extract and acacia bark have been shown to help insulin bind to the cell, thereby aiding overall insulin health. I use a supplement that blends both called Insulinomics.

Fenugreek, gymnema leaf, and bitter gourd are a mixture of plants that help the glucose get into the cell once insulin has bound to it.

I use a blend of all three called Fenuplex and I suggest taking Insulinomics and Fenuplex together. But, if you want to start slowly, begin with Insulinomics and then add Fenuplex. Take them with meals.

Tip 8: Learn More About Insulin Health

To read about the role insulin sensitivity plays with body composition and weight training, read this two part article here: Part 1, and Part 2.

I also provide a News Update on Diabetes that highlights the role insulin sensitivity plays in preventing Alzheimer’s.

References:
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Martin, C., Rosenbaum, D., et al. Change in Food Cravings, Food Preferences, and Appetite During a Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diet. Obesity. October 2011. 19(10), 1963-1970.

Mozaffarian, D., Aro, A., Willett, W. Health Effects of Trans-Fatty Acids: Experimental and Observational Evidence. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2009. 63(Suppl 2), 5-21.Simpopoulos, A.P. The Importance of the Ratio of Omega-6/Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy. 2002. 56, 365-379.

Simopoulos, A., Norman, H., Gillespie, J. Purslane in Human Nutrition and its Potential for World Agriculture. World Review for Nutrition and Dietetics. 1995. 77, 47–74.

Simopoulos, A., Salem, N. Purslane: A Terrestrial Source of Omega-3 Fatty Acids. New England Journal of Medicine. 1986. 315, 833-837.

Wolever, T., Campbell, J., Geleva, D., Anderson, H. High-Fiber Cereal Reduces Postprandial Insulin Responses in Hyperinsulinemic but not Normoinsulinemic Subjects. Diabetes Care. June 2004. 27(6), 1281-1285.Granfeldt, T., Bjorck, I. A Bilberry Drink with Fermented Oatmeal Decreases Postprandial Insulin Demand in Young Healthy Adults. Nutrition Journal. May 2011.10, 57.Torronen, R., Sarkkinen, E., Tapola, N., Hautaniemi, E., Kilpi, K., Niskanen, L. Berries Modify the Postprandial Plasma Glucose Response to Sucrose in Healthy Subjects. British Journal of Nutrition. April 2010. 103(8), 1094-1097.
Clegg, M., Pratt, M., Meade, C., Henry, C. The Addition of Raspberries and Blueberries to a Starch-Based Food Does not Alter the Glycaemic Response. British Journal of Nutrition. August 2011. 106, 335-338.

Sun, F., Wong, S., et al. Substrate Utilization During Brisk Walking is affected by Glycemic Index and fructose Content of a Pre-Exercise Meal. European Journal of Applied Physiology. November 2011. Published Ahead of Print.

Kokavec, A., Halloran, M. Consuming a Small-Moderate Dose of Red Wine Alone Can alter the Glucose-Insulin Relationship. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. December 2010. 88(12), 1147-1156.

Cox, C., Stanhope, K., et al. Consumption of Fructose-Sweetened Beverages for 10 Weeks Reduces Net Fat Oxidation and Energy Expenditure in Overweight/Obese Men and Women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. September 2011. Published Ahead of Print.
Mikus, C., Oberlin, D., Libla, J., Taylor, A., Booth, F., Thyfault, J. Lowering Physical Activity Impairs Glycemic Control in Healthy Volunteers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. June 2011. Published Ahead of Print.

Thyfault J., Booth, F., Lack of Regular Physical Exercise or too Much Inactivity. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care. July 2011. 14(4), 374-378.

Von Hurst, P., Stonehouse, W., Coad, J. Vitamin D supplementation reduces insulin resistance in South Asian women living in New Zealand who are insulin resistant and vitamin D deficient – a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. British Journal of Nutrition. 2009. 4(103), 549 – 555.

Pittas, A., Lau, J., Hu, F., Dawson-Hughes, B. The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2007. 92, 2017-2029.

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