Posted by: Kevin G. Parker, D.C.
Olive-Oil-Derived Oleocanthal -May Help Prevent Alzheimer’s-Anti Inflammatory
Key points from the 4 studies below
1. Previously researchers thought EVOO benefits were from MUFA’s. (Monounsaturated Fatty acids)
2. Now scientists discovered Oleocanthal in EVOO may be the key.
3. Oleocanthal is naturally occuring in EVOO and has a peppery stinging sensation in the throat.
4. Oleocanthal has anti-inflammatory properties– potency and profile strikingly similar to that of ibuprofen.
5. Oleocanthal- a phenolic component of extra-virgin olive oil- has been recently linked to reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease – a neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by accumulation of ß-amyloid (Aß) and tau proteins in the brain.
6. Chronic inflammation is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory disease states including cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, degenerative joint diseases and neurodegenerative diseases.
4 different studies linked below in this Post.
1. ACS Chem. Neurosci., Article (Web): February 15, 2013
Olive-Oil-Derived Oleocanthal Enhances β-Amyloid Clearance as a Potential Neuroprotective Mechanism against Alzheimer’s Disease: In Vitro and in Vivo Studies
Alaa H. Abuznait , Hisham Qosa , Belnaser A. Busnena , Khalid A. El Sayed , and Amal Kaddoumi *
Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Science, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, 1800 Bienville Drive, Monroe, Louisiana 71201, United States
Oleocanthal, a phenolic component of extra-virgin olive oil, has been recently linked to reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by accumulation of ß-amyloid (Aß) and tau proteins in the brain.
However, the mechanism by which oleocanthal exerts its neuroprotective effect is still incompletely understood.
Here, we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence for the potential of oleocanthal to enhance Aß clearance from the brain via up-regulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and LDL lipoprotein receptor related protein-1 (LRP1), major Aß transport proteins, at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Results from in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated similar and consistent pattern of oleocanthal in controlling Aß levels.
In cultured mice brain endothelial cells, oleocanthal treatment increased P-gp and LRP1 expression and activity.
Brain efflux index (BEI%) studies of 125I-Aß40 showed that administration of oleocanthal extracted from extra-virgin olive oil to C57BL/6 wild-type mice enhanced 125I-Aß40 clearance from the brain and increased the BEI% from 62.0 ± 3.0% for control mice to 79.9 ± 1.6% for oleocanthal treated mice.
Increased P-gp and LRP1 expression in the brain microvessels and inhibition studies confirmed the role of up-regulation of these proteins in enhancing 125I-Aß40 clearance after oleocanthal treatment.
Furthermore, our results demonstrated significant increase in 125I-Aß40 degradation as a result of the up-regulation of Aß degrading enzymes following oleocanthal treatment.
In conclusion, these findings provide experimental support that potential reduced risk of AD associated with extra-virgin olive oil could be mediated by enhancement of Aß clearance from the brain.
2. Curr Pharm Des. 2011;17(8):754-68.
Molecular mechanisms of inflammation. Anti-inflammatory benefits of virgin olive oil and the phenolic compound oleocanthal.-Lucas L, Russell A, Keast R.
School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, Australia.
Chronic inflammation is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory disease states including cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, degenerative joint diseases and neurodegenerative diseases.
Chronic inflammatory states are poorly understood, however it is known that dietary habits can evoke or attenuate inflammatory responses.
Popular methods to deal with inflammation and its associated symptoms involve the use of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, however the use of these drugs are associated with severe side effects.
Therefore, investigations concerned with natural methods of inflammatory control are warranted.
A traditional Mediterranean diet has been shown to confer some protection against the pathology of chronic diseases through the attenuation of pro-inflammatory mediators and this has been partially attributed to the high intake of virgin olive oil accompanying this dietary regime.
Virgin olive oil contains numerous phenolic compounds that exert potent anti-inflammatory actions.
Of interest to this paper is the recently discovered phenolic compound oleocanthal.
Oleocanthal is contained in virgin olive oil and possesses similar anti-inflammatory properties to ibuprofen.
This pharmacological similarity has provoked interest in oleocanthal and the few studies conducted thus far have verified its anti-inflammatory and potential therapeutic actions.
A review of the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet and anti-inflammatory properties of virgin olive oil is presented with the additional emphasis on the pharmacological and anti-inflammatory properties of the phenolic compound oleocanthal.
3. Oleocanthal May Help Prevent, Treat Alzheimer’s-Natural compound in extra-virgin olive oil targets toxic beta-amyloid proteins
PHILADELPHIA (September 29, 2009) — Oleocanthal, a naturally-occurring compound found in extra-virgin olive oil, alters the structure of neurotoxic proteins believed to contribute to the debilitating effects of Alzheimer’s disease.
This structural change impedes the proteins’ ability to damage brain nerve cells.
“The findings may help identify effective preventative measures and lead to improved therapeutics in the fight against Alzheimer’s disease,” said study co-leader Paul A.S. Breslin, PhD, a sensory psychobiologist at the Monell Center.
Known as ADDLs, these highly toxic proteins bind within the neural synapses of the brains of Alzheimer’s patients and are believed to directly disrupt nerve cell function, eventually leading to memory loss, cell death, and global disruption of brain function. Synapses are specialized junctions that allow one nerve cell to send information another.
“Binding of ADDLs to nerve cell synapses is thought to be a crucial first step in the initiation of Alzheimer’s disease.
Oleocanthal alters ADDL structure in a way that deters their binding to synapses,” said William L. Klein, PhD, who co-led the research with Breslin.
“Translational studies are needed to link these laboratory findings to clinical interventions.”
Klein is Professor of Neurobiology & Physiology, and a member of the Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimer’s Disease Center, at Northwestern University.
He and his colleagues identified ADDLs in 1998, leading to a major shift in thinking about the causes, progression and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.
Also known as beta-amyloid oligomers, ADDLs are structurally different from the amyloid plaques that accumulate in brains of Alzheimer’s patients.
Reporting on a series of in vitro studies, the team of Monell and Northwestern researchers found that incubation with oleocanthal changed the structure of ADDLs by increasing the protein’s size.
Knowing that oleocanthal changed ADDL size, the researchers next examined whether oleocanthal affected the ability of ADDLs to bind to synapses of cultured hippocampal neurons. The hippocampus, a part of the brain intimately involved in learning and memory, is one of the first areas affected by Alzheimer’s disease.
Measuring ADDL binding with and without oleocanthal, they discovered that small amounts of oleocanthal effectively reduced binding of ADDLs to hippocampal synapses. Additional studies revealed that oleocanthal can protect synapses from structural damage caused by ADDLs.
An unexpected finding was that oleocanthal makes ADDLs into stronger targets for antibodies. This action establishes an opportunity for creating more effective immunotherapy treatments, which use antibodies to bind to and attack ADDLs.
Breslin commented on the implications of the findings. “If antibody treatment of Alzheimer’s is enhanced by oleocanthal, the collective anti-toxic and immunological effects of this compound may lead to a successful treatment for an incurable disease. Only clinical trials will tell for sure.”
In earlier work at Monell, Breslin and co-workers used the sensory properties of extra virgin olive oil to identify oleocanthal based on a similar oral irritation quality to ibuprofen.
Oleocanthal and ibuprofen also have similar anti-inflammatory properties, and ibuprofen – like extra virgin olive oils presumably rich in oleocanthal – is associated with a decreased risk of Alzheimer’s when used regularly.
Future studies to identify more precisely how oleocanthal changes ADDL structure may increase understanding of the pharmacological actions of oleocanthal, ibuprofen, and structurally related plant compounds. Such pharmacological insights could provide discovery pathways related to disease prevention and treatment.
The findings are reported in the October 15 issue of Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology.
First author Jason Pitt, a graduate student in Klein’s lab, conducted the studies.
Also contributing to the work were chemist Amos B. Smith, III, of Monell and the University of Pennsylvania, who supplied the oleocanthal; William Roth, Pascale Lacor and Pauline Velasco from Northwestern; Matthew Blankenship from Western Illinois University; and Fernanda De Felice from the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. In addition to his faculty appointment at Monell, Breslin is Professor of Nutritional Sciences in the School of Environmental and Biological Sciences at Rutgers University.
The National Institute on Aging funded the research; Dr. Breslin is funded by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders.
4. Nature. 2005 Sep 1;437(7055):45-6.- Phytochemistry: ibuprofen-like activity in extra-virgin olive oil.
Beauchamp GK, Keast RS, Morel D, Lin J, Pika J, Han Q, Lee CH, Smith AB, Breslin PA.
Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.
Newly pressed extra-virgin olive oil contains oleocanthal–a compound whose pungency induces a strong stinging sensation in the throat, not unlike that caused by solutions of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen.
We show here that this similar perception seems to be an indicator of a shared pharmacological activity, with oleocanthal acting as a natural anti-inflammatory compound that has a potency and profile strikingly similar to that of ibuprofen.
Although structurally dissimilar, both these molecules inhibit the same cyclooxygenase enzymes in the prostaglandin-biosynthesis pathway.
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