Nutr Cancer. 2011 Jul;63(5):771-7. Epub 2011 Jun 11.Pub Med Link
Omega-3 Fatty Acid Inhibition of Prostate Cancer Progression to Hormone Independence Is Associated With Suppression of mTOR Signaling and Androgen Receptor Expression.
William Friedrichs– Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Texas, USA
Shivani B. Ruparel– Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Texas, USA
Robert A. Marciniak– Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Texas, USA, and Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Texas, USA
Linda deGraffenried– Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, Texas, USA
Key thoughts from ME:
1. “Several reports have suggested that nutrition may play a major role in the incidence, progression and clinical outcome of prostate cancer” (1,27).
2. “Epidemiological studies have indicated that omega-3 fatty acids inhibit growth of prostate cancer cells and omega-6 fatty acids promote the disease” (2).
3. “Based on the evidence, it has been speculated that the omega-3 fatty acids may reduce the risk of prostate cancer and also inhibit growth of developing prostate tumors.”
4. “Hence it is crucial in identify compounds that may have the potential to prevent the progression of the disease to hormone independence.”
5. “Our study shows that in an in vitro model, long-term treatment with the omega-3 fatty acids such as DHA and EPA may prevent hormone-dependent prostate cancer cells from progressing to hormone-independent.”
side note: 2004 study on Omega 3’s and Prostate Cancer: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition-July, 2004
Currently, progression of prostate cancer to androgen independence remains the primary obstacle to improved survival.
In order to improve overall survival, novel treatment strategies that are based upon specific molecular mechanisms that prolong the androgen-dependent state and that are useful for androgen-independent disease need to be identified.
Both epidemiological as well as preclinical data suggest that omega-3 fatty acids are effective primary tumor prevention agents; however, their efficacy at preventing and treating refractory prostate cancer has not been as thoroughly investigated.
We used an in vitro model of androgen ablation to determine the effect of treatment with omega-3 fatty acids on the progression to an androgen-independent state.
The omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were able to prevent progression of LNCaP cells while the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA) actually promoted cell growth under conditions of hormone depletion.
These results correlated with a decrease in the expression of the androgen receptor as well as suppression of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.
Connecting the mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids affect phenotypic outcome is important for effective exploitation of these nutrient agents as a therapeutic approach.
Understanding these processes is critical for the development of effective dietary intervention strategies that improve overall survival.